The Holy Quran and Modern Scientific Discoveries
“Behold! In the creation Of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of Night and Day – There are indeed Signs For men of understanding.” [Al-Quran 3:190]
According to the famous physicist and Nobel Prize winner, Albert Einstein, “Science without religion is lame. Religion without science is blind.”
There are scientific and historical facts found in the Holy Quran which were unknown to people at the time, and have only been discovered recently by contemporary science. This article lays out and explains some of these scientific facts that are found in the Quran, centuries before they were ‘discovered’ by contemporary science.
The Quran is not a book of science but a book of ‘signs’, i.e. ayats. There are more than six thousand ‘signs’ in the Quran of which many deal with science. Given are 20 major examples:
- Celestial bodies in Rotation
- Splitting of an Atom
- Expanding Universe
- Pain receptors in skin
- Fetus Protected by 3 Veils of Darkness
- Function of the Frontal Cerebrum
- Milk Produced between intestine and blood
- Hearing first sense
- Barrier between 2 seas of water
- Shape of the Earth
- 7 Layers of Earth
- Mountains and their deep roots
- Darkness of the sea
- Paths in the Sky
- Black Hole
- Formation of Clouds
- Source of Iron
- Space Exploration
- Preservation of the body of Pharoah
Quran and Modern Science
1. Sun, Moon, Earth, Planets, Stars and all which are all in rotation, mentioned in the Holy QURAN 1400 years ago, discovered recently:
“It is He Who created The Night and the Day, And the Sun and the Moon: All (the celestial bodies) Swim along, each in its Rounded course.” [Al-Qur’aan 21:33]
“It is not permitted To the Sun to catch up The Moon, nor can The Night outstrip the Day: Each (just) swims along In (its own) orbit (According to Law).” [Al-Qur’aan 36:40]
In fact, the Sun travels through space at roughly 150 miles per second, and takes about 200 million years to complete one revolution around the center of our Milky Way Galaxy.
For a long time European philosophers and scientists believed that the earth stood still in the centre of the universe and every other body including the sun moved around it. In the West, this geocentric concept of the universe was prevalent right from the time of Ptolemy in the second century B.C.
In 1512, Nicholas Copernicus put forward his Heliocentric Theory of Planetary Motion, which asserted that the sun is motionless at the centre of the solar system with the planets revolving around it. In 1609, the German scientist Yohannus Keppler published the ‘Astronomia Nova’. In this he concluded that not only do the planets move in elliptical orbits around the sun, they also rotate upon their axes at irregular speeds. With this knowledge it became possible for European scientists to explain correctly many of the mechanisms of the solar system including the sequence of night and day.
After these discoveries, it was thought that the Sun was stationary and did not rotate about its axis like the Earth. I remember having studied this fallacy from Geography books during my school days.
The Arabic word used in the above verse is yasbahûn . The word yasbahûn is derived from the word sabaha. It carries with it the idea of motion that comes from any moving body. If you use the word for a man on the ground, it would not mean that he is rolling but would mean he is walking or running. If you use the word for a man in water it would not mean that he is floating but would mean that he is swimming.
Similarly, if you use the word yasbah for a celestial body such as the sun it would not mean that it is only flying through space but would mean that it is also rotating as it goes through space. Most of the school textbooks have incorporated the fact that the sun rotates about its axis. The rotation of the sun about its own axis can be proved with the help of an equipment that projects the image of the sun on the table top so that one can examine the image of the sun without being blinded. It is noticed that the sun has spots which complete a circular motion once every 25 days i.e. the sun takes approximately 25 days to rotate around its axis.
This verse mentions an essential fact discovered by modern astronomy, i.e. the existence of the individual orbits of the Sun and the Moon, and their journey through space with their own motion. The ‘fixed place’ towards, which the sun travels, carrying with it the solar system, has been located exactly by modern astronomy. It has been given a name, the Solar Apex. The solar system is indeed moving in space towards a point situated in the constellation of Hercules (alpha Layer) whose exact location is firmly established.
The moon rotates around its axis in the same duration that it takes to revolve around the earth. It takes approximately 29½ days to complete one rotation. One cannot help but be amazed at the scientific accuracy of the Quranic verses.
2. It is possible to split even an Atom mentioned in Quran 1400 years ago, discovered recently:
“They say, never to us will come the Hour: say, ‘Nay! But most surely, By my Lord, it will come Upon you – by Him Who knows the unseen – From Whom is not hidden THE LEAST LITTLE ATOM In the heavens or on earth: Nor is there anything less than that, or greater, but Is in the record perspicuous.’” [Al-Qur’aan 34:3]
In recent times modern science has discovered that it is possible to split even an atom. That the atom can be split further is a development of the 20th century. Fourteen centuries ago this concept would have appeared unusual even to Arabs. For them the ‘dharrah’ was the limit beyond which one could not go.
This verse refers to the Omniscience of God, His knowledge of all things, hidden or apparent. It then goes further and says that God is aware of everything, including what is smaller or bigger than the atom. Thus the verse clearly shows that it is possible for something smaller than the atom to exist, a fact discovered only recently by modern science.
3. Milk in animals is produced by conjunction between the contents of Intestine and Blood, mentioned in Quran 1400 years ago, discovered recently:
“And verily in cattle there is A lesson for you. We give you to drink of what is inside their bodies, Coming from a conjunction Between the contents of the Intestine and the blood, A milk pure and pleasant for Those who drink it.” [Al-Qur’aan 16:66]
“And in cattle (too) ye Have an instructive example: From within their
bodies We produce (milk) for you To drink; there are, in them, (Besides), numerous (other) Benefits for you; And of their (meat) ye eat.” [Al-Qur’aan 23:21]
William Harwey brought this understanding to the Western world in 16th Century before it was known what happens in the intestines to ensure that organs are nourished by the process of digestive absorption, a verse in the Qur’aan described the source of the constituents of milk, in conformity with these notions.
The Quranic description of the production of milk in cattle is strikingly similar to what modern physiology has discovered.
4. Fetus protected by 3 Veils of darkness mentioned in Quran 1400 years ago, discovered recently:
“He makes you, In the wombs of your mothers, In stages, one after
another, In three veils of darkness.” [Al-Qur’aan 39:6]
According to Prof. Keith Moore, these 3 veils of darkness in the Qur’aan refers to:
(i) anterior abdominal wall of the mother (vaginal wall)
(ii) the uterine wall
(iii) the amnio-chorionic membrane
5. Pain receptors present in the Skin discovered recently, mentioned in Quran 1400 years ago:
“Those who reject Our signs, We shall soon Cast into the Fire; As often as their skins Are roasted through, We shall change them for fresh skins, that they may taste the Penalty: for Allah Is Exalted in Power, Wise.” [Al-Qur’aan 4:56]
Professor Tagatat Tejasen, Chairman of the Department of Anatomy at Chiang Mai University in Thailand, has spent a great amount of time on research of pain receptors. Initially he could not believe that the Qur’aan mentioned this scientific fact 1,400 years ago. He later verified the translation of this particular Qur’aanic verse. Prof. Tejasen was so impressed by the scientific accuracy of the Qur’aanic verse, that at the 8th Saudi Medical Conference held in Riyadh on the Scientific Signs of Quran and Sunnah he proclaimed in public: “There is no God but Allah and Muhammad (peace be upon him) is His Messenger.”
It was thought that the sense of feeling and pain was only dependent on the brain. Recent discoveries prove that there are pain receptors present in the skin without which a person would not be able to feel pain. When a doctor examines a patient suffering from burn injuries, he verifies the degree of burns by a pinprick. If the patient feels pain, the doctor is happy, because it indicates that the burns are superficial and the pain receptors are intact. On the other hand if the patient does not feel any pain, it indicates that it is a deep burn and the pain receptors have been destroyed. The Quran gives an indication of the existence of pain receptors in this verse.
6. The first sense to develop in a developing human embryo is hearing.
The fetus can hear sounds after the 24th week. Subsequently, the sense of sight is developed and by the 28th week, the retina becomes sensitive to light.
Consider the following Qur’aanic verses related to the development of the senses in the embryo:
“And He gave You (the faculties of) hearing and sight and feeling (And understanding).” [Al-Qur’aan 32:9]
“Verily We created Man from a drop Of mingled sperm, In order to try him: So We gave him (the gifts), Of Hearing and Sight.”
“It is He Who has created For you (the faculties of) Hearing, sight,
feeling And understanding: little thanks It is ye give!”
In all these verses the sense of hearing is mentioned before that of sight. The Quranic description matches with the discoveries in modern embryology.
What modern science confirms today was known to Islam, 1400 years ago.
Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) has said : “After the drop (nut.fa) has been [in the uterus] for 42 days, Allah sends an angel that gives it form and fashions its hearing, sight, skin, flesh, and skeleton (of baby child).”
As per modern science, the Organogenesis peaks precisely at 42 days. The time frame given cited above is in conformity with embryological observation. The embryo reaches the sixth week without showing the semblance of human form but by the seventh week of its life – about three centimeters in size and beginning to move – that semblance becomes visible in the formation of the essential organs including the sensory organs and grown bone tissue. The arms and legs have lengthened. The foot and hand areas are distinguishable and they have digits. And the first recordable brain wave activity occurs.
7. The Barrier between two Seas of Water
HE has set free the two seas meeting together. There is a barrier between them. They do not transgress. (Quran, 55:19-20)
HE is the one who has set free the two kinds of water, one sweet and palatable, and the other salty and bitter. And He has made between them a barrier and a forbidding partition. (Quran, 25:53)
8. Universe is expanding mentioned in Quran 1400 years ago, discovered recently:
“And the heaven (space) We created with might, and indeed We are (its) expander.” (Quran 51:47)
In 1925, an American astronomer by the name of Edwin Hubble, provided observational evidence that all galaxies are receding from one another, which implies that the universe is expanding. The expansion of the universe is now an established scientific fact. This is what Al-Qur’aan says regarding the nature of the universe.
The Arabic word mûsi‘ûn is correctly translated as ‘expanding it’, and it refers to the creation of the expanding vastness of the universe. Stephen Hawking, in his book, ‘A Brief History of Time’, says, “The discovery that the universe is expanding was one of the great intellectual revolutions of the 20th century.”
The Qur’aan mentioned the expansion of the universe, before man even learnt to build a telescope! Some may say that the presence of astronomical facts in the Qur’aan is not surprising since the Arabs were advanced in the field of astronomy. They are correct in acknowledging the advancement of the Arabs in the field of astronomy. However they fail to realize that the Qur’aan was revealed centuries before the Arabs excelled in astronomy. Moreover many of the scientific facts mentioned above regarding astronomy, such as the origin of the universe with a Big Bang, were not known to the Arabs even at the peak of their scientific advancement. The scientific facts mentioned in the Qur’aan are therefore not due to the Arabs’ advancement in astronomy. Indeed, the reverse is true. The Arabs advanced in astronomy, because astronomy occupies a place in the Qur’aan.
9. Area of Cerebrum responsible for Planning, Motivation and Behavior, what science confirms today was already mentioned in the Quran 1400 years ago:
“No! If he does not stop, We will take him by the naseyah (front of the head), a lying, sinful naseyah (front of the head)!”
The area of the cerebrum is responsible for planning, motivating, and initiating good and sinful behavior and is responsible for the telling of lies and the speaking of truth. Thus, it is proper to describe the front of the head as lying and sinful when someone lies or commits a sin, as the Quran has said, “…A lying, sinful naseyah (front of the head)!”
10. 7 layers of Earth mentioned in QURAN confirmed by modern Science:
“It is Allah Who created the 7 heavens and of the Earth the same number, the Command descending down through all of them, so that you might know that Allah has power over all things and that Allah encompasses all things in His knowledge.” (Qur’an, 65:12)
As per Scientific sources the Earth consists of seven stratas:
1st layer: Lithosphere (water)
2nd layer: Lithosphere (land)
3rd layer: Asthenosphere
4th layer: Upper Mantle
5th layer: Inner Mantle
6th layer: Outer Core
7th layer: Inner Core
11. Scientifically correct shape of Earth mentioned in QURAN 1400 years a ago:-
“He made the Earth Egg (Geoid) shaped.” Quran : 79:30
“والارض بعد ذلك دحاها”
12. Iron did not form on Earth and came from outer space mentioned in QURAN 1400 years ago discovered by Astronomers recently:
“And We also sent down Iron in which there lies great force and which has many uses for mankind…” (Quran 57:25)
Astronomical findings have disclosed that the Iron found in our world has come from giant stars in outer space. Not only the iron on earth, but also the iron in the entire Solar System, comes from outer space, since the temperature in the Sun is inadequate for the formation of iron. The sun has a surface temperature of 6,000 degrees Celsius, and a core temperature of approximately 20 million degrees. Iron can only be produced in much larger stars than the Sun, where the temperature reaches a few hundred million degrees. When the amount of iron exceeds a certain level in a star, the star can no longer accommodate it, and it eventually explodes in what is called a “nova” or a “supernova.” These explosions make it possible for iron to be given off into space.
13. Preservation of Egyptian Pharaoh’s body correctly predicted in Quran 1400 years discovered recently:
“Today we will preserve your body so you can be a Sign for people who come after you. Surely many people are heedless of Our Signs.” (Qur’an, 10:91-92)”
On display in the Royal Mummies Chamber of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo is a mummified body believed to be that of this tyrant. In all likelihood, Pharaoh’s body floated to shore after being drowned, was found and mummified by the Egyptians, and then carried to a previously prepared burial chamber. The information that Pharaoh’s corpse would serve as a sign for later generations may be regarded as an indication that his body would not decay.
Pharaoh regarded himself as a deity and responded with slanders and threats to Prophet Musa (peace be upon him) calls for him to believe in Allah. This arrogant attitude lasted until Pharaoh was faced with the threat of death through drowning.
14. Exploration of Space and Earth correctly predicted in Quran 1400 years ago:
“O company of jinn and human beings. If you are able to pierce through the confines of the Heavens and Earth, pierce through them. You will not pierce through, except with a clear authority. (Qur’an, 55:33)”
The Arabic word sultan, translated here as “a clear authority,” has other meanings as well: force, power, sovereignty, dominion, law, path, permission, give leave, justify, and proof.
Careful examination reveals that the above verse emphasizes that humanity will be able to move into the depths of Earth and Sky, but only with a superior power. In all likelihood, this superior power is the superior technology employed in the twentieth century, for it enabled scientists to achieve this great feat.
15. ‘Rosette Nebula’ mentioned in QURAN 1400 years ago, discovered recently:
“When the Heaven shall be cleft asunder, and become rose red, like stained leather”. (Surat ar-Rahman, 37)
Nebula is the name given to cloud-like masses of gas in space. A team led by Leisa Townsley, a senior Penn State University researcher in the field of astronomy and astrophysics, examined the Rosette Nebula using the Chandra X-ray telescope. They imaged hundreds of stars in the Rosette Nebula and determined that by crashing into one another stars produce gas at temperatures of 6 million degrees. Townsley describes what she saw:
A ghostly glow of diffuse X ray emission pervades the Rosette Nebula and perhaps many other star-forming regions throughout the Galaxy. We now have a new view of the engine lighting the beautiful Rosette Nebula and new evidence for how the interstellar medium may be energized.”
One type of nebula is known as the “Rosette Nebula” because of its resemblance to a rose. The Rosette Nebula is also a vast cloud of gas and seems to have an area five times greater than that of the full moon.2 Its true diameter is estimated at 130 light years.
Before they become nebulae they are stars, and since these stars are very large, they release gasses into space because of their high internal pressure and temperatures. These eruptions of gas are very large and fast. These gasses then coalesce to form a gas cloud, with a temperature of more than 15,000 0C.
The existence of this body seen in the illustrations can only be confirmed by high-tech observation equipment. This state of affairs regarding the skies noted in the Qur’an is in great agreement with the findings of present-day astronomy. In one verse of the Qur’an we are told:
“You do not engage in any matter or recite any of the Qur’an or do any action without Our witnessing you while you are occupied with it. Not even the smallest speck eludes your Lord, either on earth or in heaven. Nor is there anything smaller than that, or larger, which is not in a Clear Book.” (Quran – Surah Yunus, 61)
16. ‘Black Hole’ mentioned in Quran 1400 years ago, discovered recently:
“[I swear] by Heaven and the Tariq! And what will convey to you what the Tariq is? The Star Piercing [the darkness]!” (Qur’an, 86:1-3)
“When the Stars are extinguished…” (Qur’an, 77:8)
“And I swear by the Stars’ positions-and that is a mighty oath if you only knew.” (Qur’an, 56:75-76)
17. Mountains have deep roots mentioned in Quran 1400 years ago, discovered recently
“Have We not made the earth as a bed, and the Mountains as pegs?” (Quran 78:6-7)
“And He has set firm Mountains in the earth so that it would not shake with you…” (Quran 16:15)
Modern science has proven that mountains have deep roots under the surface of the ground and that these roots can reach several times their elevations above the surface of the ground. So the most suitable word to describe mountains on the basis of this information is the word ‘peg,’ since most of a properly set peg is hidden under the surface of the ground. The history of science tells us that the theory of mountains having deep roots was introduced only in the latter half of the nineteenth century.
A book entitled Earth is a basic reference textbook in many universities around the world. One of its two authors is Professor Emeritus Frank Press. He was the Science adviser to former US President Jimmy Carter, and for 12 years was the President of the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. His book says that mountains have underlying roots. These roots are deeply embedded in the ground, thus, mountains have a shape like a peg.
Mountains also play an important role in stabilizing the crust of the earth. They hinder the shaking of the earth.
Likewise, the modern theory of plate tectonics holds that mountains work as stabilizers for the earth. This knowledge about the role of mountains as stabilizers for the earth has just begun to be understood in the framework of plate tectonics since the late 1960’s.
Could anyone during the time of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) have known of the true shape of mountains? Could anyone imagine that the solid massive mountain which he sees before him actually extends deep into the earth and has a root, as scientists assert? A large number of books of geology, when discussing mountains, only describe that part which is above the surface of the earth. This is because these books were not written by specialists in geology. However, modern geology has confirmed the truth of the Quranic verses.
18. Darkness found within Internal Waves deep in the Sea mentioned in Quran 1400 years ago, discovered recently :-
“Or (the unbelievers’ state) is like the darkness in a deep sea. It is covered by waves, above which are waves, above which are clouds. Darknesses, one above another. If a man stretches out his hand, he cannot see it….” (Quran 24:40)
This verse mentions the darkness found in deep seas and oceans, where if a man stretches out his hand, he cannot see it. The darkness in deep seas and oceans is found around a depth of 200 meters and below. At this depth, there is almost no light. Below a depth of 1000 meters there is no light at all. Human beings are not able to dive more than forty meters without the aid of submarines or special equipment. Human beings cannot survive unaided in the deep dark part of the oceans, such as at a depth of 200 meters.
Between 3 and 30 percent of the sunlight is reflected at the sea surface. Then almost all of the seven colors of the light spectrum are absorbed one after another in the first 200 meters, except the blue light. (Oceans, Elder and Pernetta, p. 27.)
Scientists have recently discovered this darkness by means of special equipment and submarines that have enabled them to dive into the depths of the oceans.
We can also understand from the following sentences in the previous verse, “…in a deep sea. It is covered by waves, above which are waves, above which are clouds….”, that the deep waters of seas and oceans are covered by waves, and above these waves are other waves. It is clear that the second set of waves are the surface waves that we see, because the verse mentions that above the second waves there are clouds. But what about the first waves? Scientists have recently discovered that there are internal waves which “occur on density interfaces between layers of different densities.”.
Internal waves at interface between two layers of water of different densities. One is dense (the lower one), the other one is less dense (the upper one). (Oceanography, Gross, p. 204.)
The internal waves cover the deep waters of seas and oceans because the deep waters have a higher density than the waters above them. Internal waves act like surface waves. They can also break, just like surface waves. Internal waves cannot be seen by the human eye, but they can be detected by studying temperature or salinity changes at a given location.
19. There are paths in the Sky mentioned in QURAN 1400 years ago, discovered recently:
“By heaven (Sky) furnished with paths;” (QURAN – Surat adh-Dhariyat, 7)
“Will they not ponder the Qur’an? If it had been from other than Allah, they would have found many inconsistencies in it.” (QURAN – Surat an-Nisa, 82)
The Arabic word “alhubuki,” translated as “furnished with paths” in verse 7 of Surat adh-Dhariyat, comes from the verb “hubeke,” meaning “to weave closely, to knit, to bind together.” The use of this word in the verse is particularly wise and represents the current state of scientific knowledge in two aspects.
The first is this: The orbits and paths in the universe are so dense and intertwined that they constitute intersecting paths, just like the threads in a piece of fabric. The Solar System we live in is made up of the Sun, the planets and their satellites and heavenly objects in constant motion such as meteors and comets. The Solar System moves through the galaxy known as the Milky Way, which contains 400 billion stars.1 It is estimated that there are billions of galaxies. Celestial bodies and systems revolving at speeds of thousands of kilometers an hour move through space without colliding with one another.
The science of astronomy was developed with the aim of mapping the positions and courses of stars, while astro-mechanics was developed in order to determine these complex motions. Astronomers used to assume that orbits were perfectly spherical. The fact is, however, that heavenly bodies are known to follow mathematical shapes, such as spherical, elliptical, parabolic or hyperbolic orbits. Dr. Carlo Rovelli of the University of Pittsburgh says, “Our space in which we live is just this enormously complicated spin network.”
Above left; the orbits of some of the bodies in the Solar System. Based on this picture and looking clockwise, it can be seen that the Solar System itself is part of even greater orbital movements.
The second aspect is that the description in the Quran of the sky using a word meaning “woven” may be a reference to the String Theory of physics. (Allah knows the truth.) According to this theory, the basic elements that comprise the universe are not point-like particles, but strings resembling miniature violin strings. These tiny, identical and one dimensional strings oscillating in the form of filaments are regarded as being like loops in appearance. It is assumed that the origin of all the diversity in the universe lies in the way these strings vibrate at different vibrations, in the same way that violin strings produce different sounds with different vibrations.
Although it is not possible to see the size of the threads in the String Theory, the only theory to bring theories such as Einstein’s theory of general relativity and quantum mechanics together in a coherent way, it can still be calculated mathematically. These strings, which scientists regard as the material from which space and time are woven, are just 1.6×10-35 m (0.000000000000000000000000000000000016 meters) in size.5 This, known as Plank’s length, is the smallest known, being just 10-20 of the protons that make up the nucleus of that atom.6 If an atom were to be magnified to the size of the Solar System, each one of these strings would be no bigger than a tree. 7 Bearing in mind that an atom is 100,000 times smaller than the smallest thing that can be seen with the naked eye, the minute scale of these strings can be more easily grasped.
Professor of Physics Abhay Ashtekar from the University of Pennsylvania and Professor of Physics Jerzy Lewandowski from the University of Warsaw interpret the woven appearance of space as follows in an article titled “Space and Time Beyond Einstein”:
In this theory, Einstein wove the gravitational field into the very fabric of space and time… The continuum we are all used to is only an approximation. Perhaps the simplest way to visualize these ideas is to look at a piece of fabric. For all practical purposes, it represents a 2-dimensional continuum; yet it is really woven by 1-dimensional threads. The same is true of the fabric of space-time. It is only because the “quantum threads” which weave this fabric are tightly woven in the region of the universe we inhabit that we perceive a continuum. Upon intersection with a surface, each thread, or polymer excitation, endows it with a tiny “Plank quantum” of area of about 10-66 cm2. So an area of 100 cm2 has about 1068 such intersections; because the number is so huge, the intersections are very closely spaced and we have the illusion of a continuum.8
An Article in the New York Times seeking an answer to the question “How Was the Universe Built?” contained the following lines:
Even the tiny quarks that make up protons, neutrons and other particles are too big to feel the bumps that may exist on the Planck scale. More recently, though, physicists have suggested that quarks and everything else are made of far tinier objects: superstrings vibrating in 10 dimensions. At the Planck level, the weave of space-time would be as apparent as when the finest Egyptian cotton is viewed under a magnifying glass, exposing the warp and woof.
In his book Three Roads to Quantum Gravity, the theoretical quantum physicist Lee Smolin devotes one chapter to “How to Weave a String” and says this on the subject:
… space may be ‘woven’ from a network of loops… just like a piece of cloth is ‘woven’ from a network of threads.
In his book Our Cosmic Habitat the cosmologist and astrophysicist Prof. Martin Rees says:
According to our present concepts, empty space is anything but simple… and on an even tinier scale, it may be a seething tangle of strings.11
The way that Allah describes the universe as being woven paths and orbits in verse 7 of Surat adh-Dhariyat shows that the Qur’an is in extraordinary agreement with science. As can be seen in a great many other instances, the way that all the information revealed in the Qur’an 1400 years ago is confirmed by modern scientific data is highly thought provoking. This perfect harmony between the Qur’an and scientific developments clearly reveals that the Qur’an is the word of our Lord, the creator of and He who knows best about all things. In one verse Allah states:
The University of Pittsburgh physicist Carlo Rovelli presents a model woven like a web in order to represent the microscopic architectural structure of the universe.
20. Details mentioned in the Quran about cloud formation over 1400 years ago has only recently been discovered by science.
Scientists have studied cloud types and have realized that rain clouds are formed and shaped according to definite systems and certain steps connected with certain types of wind and clouds.
One kind of rain cloud is the cumulonimbus cloud. Meteorologists have studied how cumulonimbus clouds are formed and how they produce rain, hail, and lightning.
They have found that cumulonimbus clouds go through the following steps to produce rain:
1) The clouds are pushed by the wind: Cumulonimbus clouds begin to form when wind pushes some small pieces of clouds (cumulus clouds) to an area where these clouds converge
2) Joining: Then the small clouds join together forming a larger cloud
Figure: A cumulonimbus cloud. After the cloud is stacked up, rain comes out of it.
“Have you not seen how God makes the clouds move gently, then joins them together, then makes them into a stack, and then you see the rain come out of it….” (Quran 24:43)
Meteorologists have only recently come to know these details of cloud formation, structure, and function by using advanced equipment like planes, satellites, computers, balloons, and other equipment, to study wind and its direction, to measure humidity and its variations, and to determine the levels and variations of atmospheric pressure.
And Allah knows best