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All about the wonderful subject of Pharmacology

Varying functions of cAMP

Varying functions of cAMP Question: Please clarify how an increase in cAMP on the one hand causes Bronchodilation and on the other hand increase in heart rate. Answer: As we know cAMP as a second messenger has several functions. It... Continue Reading →


Behavior of ligands with Respect to Constitutive Activity of Receptors

Describe full agonists, partial agonists and inverse agonists in terms of constitutive activity of a receptor The Two-state Receptor Model A receptor must exist in at least two conformations, active (Ra) and inactive (Ri). • The receptor is believed to... Continue Reading →

Use of ACE Inhibitors & ARBs in Diabetic Nephropathy

1. How are ACE Inhibitors & Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs) useful in Diabetic Nephropathy? Looking at a long term perspective, Angiotension II 2 by its vasoconstrictive effect increases the intra-glomerular pressure and hence renal hypertension. This induces glomerular hyperfiltration and... Continue Reading →

ANS MCQs “Political Pharmacology”

Political Pharmacology MCQs 1. The Pentagon is anticipating a terrorist attack from so called Al-Qaida involving dangerous organosphosphorus compounds in the coming few days. Which drug will the US government most likely advise its citizens to take as a preventive... Continue Reading →

Use of Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors in Prevention & Treatment of Acute Mountain Sickness:

Scientists mostly agree that acute mountain sickness (AMS) is caused by hypoxia at high altitude and a failure to adapt to that hypoxia (hence occurring more rapidly at rapid ascent because of less time for adaptation). Hypoxia leads to hyperventilation... Continue Reading →

Advantages of LMW Heparins over UFH

Low Molecular Weight Heparins (LMWH) like enoxaparin have the following advantages over unfractionated heparin (UFH): 1. Predictable pharmacokinetics and predictable plasma levels mainly because they don’t bind to plasma proteins, macrophages or endothelial cells 2. Thus no need of monitoring... Continue Reading →

Advantages of ORAL DTIs (Direct Thrombin Inhibitors) over warfarin

The direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) exert their anticoagulant effect by directly binding to the active site of thrombin, thereby inhibiting thrombin's downstream effects. This is in contrast to indirect thrombin inhibitors such as heparin and LMWH (see above), which act... Continue Reading →

Pharmacology MCQs-Chemotherapy

1. Which one are a group of Anti-metabolites? a)      Aminoglycosides b)     Carbapenems c)      Fluoroquinolones d)     Polyenes e)      Sulfonamides 2. Which one of the following agents are narrow spectrum antibiotics? a)      Aminoglycosides b)     Cotrimoxazole c)      Fluoroquinolones d)     Tetracyclines 3. Which one... Continue Reading →

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